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Music is an artform whose mediumis sound. Common elements of music are pitch(which governs melodyand harmony), rhythm(and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbreand texture. The word derives from Greekμουσική(mousike), "(art) of the Muses."[1]The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of musicvary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoricforms. Music can be divided into genresand subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within "the arts," music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art. There is also a strong connection between music and mathematics. To many people in many cultures music is an important part of their way of life. Greek philosophersand ancient Indian philosophersdefined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cagethought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, only sound."[2]Musicologist Jean-Jacques Nattiezsummarizes the relativist, post-modern viewpoint: "The border between music and noise is always culturally defined—which implies that, even within a single society, this border does not always pass through the same place; in short, there is rarely a consensus ... By all accounts there is no singleand interculturaluniversal concept defining what music might be

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